OS: The operating system of the Galaxy Note 4 is Android 4.4.2 KitKat while the Galaxy S5 is also running on version 4.4.2 Android KitKat upgradeable to Android 5.0 Lollipop.
DIMENSIONS: The dimensions for the Note 4 are 6.04 x 3.09 x 0.33 inches while the S5 are 5.59 x 2.85 x 0.32 inches.
DISPLAY: The screen size of the Note 4 is 5.7 inches compared to the S5 that is 5.1 inches. The difference in screen size is very visible. The Note 4 screen resolution is 1440 x 2560 pixels, while that of the S5 is 1080 x 1920 pixels.
SCREEN TYPE: The Note 4 is made up of the super AMOLED screen while the S5 is also blessed with super AMOLED screen.
CAMERA: The Galaxy S5 comes with a 16 mega pixel rear camera while Galaxy Note 4 also share the same 16 mega pixel rear camera quality. The S5 has a front camera of 2.1 mega pixels, while that of the Note 4 is 3.7 mega pixels. The S5 have some camera features like, Phase detection autofocus, Effects, Self-timer, Autofocus, Voice activation while the Samsung galaxy note 4 has its own features, BSI, Autofocus, Touch to focus, Manual focus, stabilization of Digital image and stabilization of Optical image (OIS).
RAM & CPU: The RAM size of the S5 is 2GB while that of the Note 4 is 3GB. The CPU of S5 is a Snapdragon 802 Quad-core 2.5 GHz, while Note 4 is using a Snapdragon 805 (Quad-core 2.7 GHz) or Exynos 5433 (Quad-core 1.3 GHz Cortex-A53 plus Quad-core 1.9 GHz).
The Galaxy Note 4 features 32GB of on-board storage, with MicroSD card expansion up to 128 GB and the same Dropbox deal as the SGS5. The Galaxy S5 features 16GB and 32GB on-board storage variants, that supports microSD cards up to 128GB, plus 50GB of free cloud storage via Dropbox.